# Doug’s Theory of the Universe

I am writing this because I believe that I have stumbled on how the speed of light, gravity, magnets, electrons, the strong force, heat, black holes, etc. actually are linked and function. I want to share with all who are interested.

Because I am not a graduate physicist I will try to explain with my own language of logic. I have read quite a lot of scientific publications and articles about cosmology and particle physics, so I am familiar and pretty up to date about much of the current thought.

The Mechanics of the Inner and Infinite Universe

In my view, the universe has a few fundamental properties:

Space is absolutely nothing, has no direction, is dimensionless and is eternal. Space also has no measurable energy in of itself. In this universe, these five properties of space, using any realistic, measurable scale, are probably un-obtainable. It seems that there is always something that occupies said space. For instance in any one of the countless cubic centimeters throughout the observable universe, there are trillions of neutrinos (they are probably non energetic, non spinning photons) travelling through said cubic centimeter, each and every second, randomly from every direction. This is not to mention the trillions of other frequencies of photons travelling through each cubic centimeter, at the same time also. This means that physical space and theoretical space are two entirely different things. This also means it is the particles that occupy said space, that give it its properties. Another property that this suggests is that at any one point in the universe there will be a positive pressure of photons colliding in some way so as to impart a slight expansive pressure. If time and matter have actually started with a point and a ‘big bang’ then an expansion will continue at an increasing rate as the edges of this expanding mass will have less pressure at said edge to contain all within. My guess is that the pressure is self containing because I believe that the occurrence of mass is infinite and the flux of photons comes from all directions to and from infinity. This therefore negates the current theorized birth of our universe 13.8 billion years ago and subsequent expansion of the universe we see today. We shall see why as my theory unfolds.

Matter is solid, is in-compressible, is un-breakable, is perfectly elastic, is incredibly stiff and has a well defined fundamental particle shape. It is also, eternal. I believe that all matter is embodied in one fundamental, identical, repeated form; we all call it the photon. Surprise? All physical properties of the universe are because of its mass, my theorized tetrahedral shape (the simplest polyhedron) and its elasticity. Its mass borders on the un-detectable because each photon is extremely thin and vanishingly small. As an example, to give an idea of the thinness, if the cross section at the center of a vastly enlarged photon was measured and was a millimeter across, the length would be (plus or minus) a kilometer in length. (purely a rough estimate) The ratio in actuality could be even more extreme. No wonder that no one has been able to measure their mass. There is no ruler or scale small enough to measure them.

Time is real and is non-quantifiable and is also eternal. Time is essential for motion and inertia to occur.

Inertia is real as described by classical physics and is again eternal and unchanging. This includes taking into account the properties of speed, location and mass.

Energy is constant, perfectly conserved and is also primordial and eternal. It is manifested by (time) motion and mass. We commonly sense it as heat.

All forces, the strong, weak, electromagnetic forces AND gravity can be explained using the above points. All other theories have to invoke the tooth fairy in order to make things fit. For instance, the carrier of the force of gravity, the Graviton is theorized and no one knows where or how to look for one. The standard list of basic subatomic particles or permutations of such, is around an unlikely 100. The following paragraphs will explain. All of the above attributes will be discussed in time. (pun intended)

The first subject I will discuss is that of light or shall we say photons (P). Why are (P) always travelling at 186,282 miles per second (186K MPS)? Why do (P), when emitted, attain said speed instantly? Why do (P) act as a particle and a wave simultaneously? Why do (P) have different colors? Why can (P) have an unbelievable range of energy states?

Photons for their size are unbelievably heavy. A teaspoon full of solid (P) would weigh at least 10 million tons (the theorized weight of neutron stars) and contain many trillions of trillions of trillions of trillions of individual (P). That means that (P) are really, really skinny.

In order to imagine my theorized shape of a photon, start with an equilateral tetrahedron. Take any two of the non-adjacent vertices and pull them away from each other, maybe millions of times the length of said vertices. This will form an extremely long, extremely narrow, sliver that has two flat edged chisel type ends, oriented at a right angle to each other. At the scale of sub-atomic particles, it is still, next to nothing.

For most of the length, it looks like a long, very skinny rectangular bar.  Therefore, the illustration below is an extremely shortened version of a real (P). I have eliminated the top surface and made it hollow in order for you to better understand the shape.

The extreme, tetrahedral shape dictates that the ends are wider than the middle as can be seen in the rendering below of a slightly extended tetrahedron. The illustrations below are showing an extremely shortened version of a real (P) that would be, as stated above, a million or more times its width compared to the length.

The next drawing shows the cross section of a (P) to illustrate that it forms a square at the middle.

The phenomenon that holds the key to everything is that this sliver can be folded (bent) over so that the two ends meet. When this is done it will bend sharply at a point equidistant from the ends, where the cross section forms a square and is at it’s weakest. The fold will take place across a line formed by connecting the opposite corners of the square cross section instead of at a line parallel to the edges. This bending takes enormous force, enough, that when the ends are released and the middle is prevented from recoiling, as when it is linked with another particle extended in the opposite direction and bent similarly, the accumulated kinetic energy will launch the first particle at the speed of light in a direction opposite to the second particle which is now also launched, travelling at the speed of light in the opposite direction to the first. We live in a blizzard of these mostly spinning little arrows.

The next 2 illustrations show how the ends of a (P), line up parallel to each other when folded at a line across the opposite edges as described in the proceeding paragraph.

The ends are shown to be larger in the following view. The crimp area in the middle is not able to be illustrated accurately with my current software, as the dynamics of that would take a very sophisticated program, a great computer and a lot of expensive computing time.

This bending phenomenon will be discussed in detail in subsequent paragraphs. There I will show how (P) are turned into measurable mass. This will be the illumination of the process of energy into mass as described in the famous Einstein equation E=mc squared. Mass into energy is well documented through many different common processes — electric lights through atomic energy — and need not be discussed right now.

All matter from sub-atomic particles to solid elements and chemicals are made from (P). This is evidenced through atomic colliders.  All particles produced through the collisions in these machines and also atoms,  eventually decay when split into energy or — (P). This to me, means that all sub-atomic particles, atoms, rocks, oranges, planets, galaxies and black holes are large amounts of P arranged in a way that give them relative stability and measurable mass.

All matter at temperatures above absolute zero, emit photonic energy (P) at the speed of light and at characteristic frequencies, depending on the temperature of the matter.

Temperature is manifested by the motion (vibration and spin) of (P). Because of the EXTREME mass, elasticity and length vs. width ratio of (P), the vibrations can be in a great many modes, frequencies and amplitudes carrying enormous amounts of kinetic energy.

Also, because of vibration and the hypothesis that (P) are physically wider at the ends, the whipping ends of (P) occupy a larger volume than the central tethered sections. This has great significance as we shall learn.

Photons therefore are the only indivisible form of matter in the universe. The shape and mass along with time are responsible for everything that physically exists and are also responsible for all of the forces in the universe!!!! (P) are also all identical.

When these thin shards (P) are bent into a ‘V’ shape, (I will get to this process later on) on a grand scale, they pile up quite rapidly with them hooking together with a stack of maybe a million or more ‘Vs’ in one direction, and a million or more ‘Vs’, 180 deg. from the first stack, hooked at the middles. The result will look roughly like an astonishingly round vibrating fluff ball with 4 lobes that are not individually apparent in length and position but in polarity. This is due to the chisel like ends of the individual (P) all being lined up due to similar orientation. This we call an electron (E). (E) are very  unstable unless bound to (neutrons and protons) in atoms. (We will discuss unstable (E) manifesting as electricity later.)

1836 of these little fluff balls nest into a stable group called a Proton (Pro) which has a – charge.  Add one (E) to the grouping which has a + charge and you have a Neutron ‘(Neu)’, with 1837 fluff balls and has no charge. (I will talk about charge later.) The nested fluff balls lock through a couple of processes. First, when the individual (E) are forced together so that the interlocked centers are in close proximity to many others, the wedge shaped ends lock against each other. Second, the vibration of the particles end up making the extreme ends of each (P), occupy a larger volume of space. When (E)’s are in this interlocked configuration the temperature adds a second locking action. When 1836 fluff balls get together, they make a stable configuration. When the vibration becomes too extreme, this structure becomes unstable and the unlocked (P) scatter at 186K MPS!

We also see the ‘strong’ inter-atomic force manifesting as infinitely (?) powerful, with the un-breakable bent ‘V’ shaped interlocked (P). Remember that (P) are unbreakable!

It is a curious note that in all particle colliders like the LHC, Stanford etc. when particles and sub particles are broken down, they ALL end up as finally being energy, using another title—PHOTONS!! This STRONGLY suggests that all matter consists solely of (P).

This would put individual (P) in the range of billions of times lighter than a (Proton) (Pr) or a (Neutron) (Neu). Is it any wonder that these little slivers having such a small mass, and travelling at the speed of light have not been weighed yet? There is nothing in its mass category to compare it to. Also because these slivers are so extremely thin, each fluff ball borders on nothing. Remember that (P) are exceedingly thin!

The scientific community has a firm understanding about the construction of particles from this stage and up.

The next force to be reckoned with is gravity. The standard idea is that a big invisible hand is reaching out to grab and pull masses together. This to me a non starter. Basically it is invoking the tooth fairy to intervene.

On the other hand, the opposite of an attractive force, namely a pressure force would make more sense and has a logical explanation.

We live in a blizzard of neutrinos (N) that scientists say, have hardly any, interaction with mass except with energies of just detectable above the sensitivity of our most powerful detectors.

Neutrinos, in my mind are photons that are not spinning end over end as (P) do.

Our cosmos is also a sea of (P) possessing almost infinite wavelengths and almost infinite energy states. On top of this are sub-atomic particles whizzing around at extremely high velocities and energies. Most all highly respected physicists say that there are many trillions of (P) and (N) passing right through us and every cubic centimeter of space and matter, each second and all are travelling at (186K MPS). I also strongly believe that the flux of (P&N) is much larger than has been described to date.

The reason that physicists are convinced that (P) are without mass is that because they are so small there is no scale small enough to measure their physical mass. On top of that they are spinning and the detectable ones are always travelling at an enormous velocity, which precludes using a tape measure or scale. When one property of an individual (P) is measured, it looses all of it’s other detectable properties. How can one measure an individual (P) mass under these conditions? To date, impossible.

There also is a strong probability that there is a vastly larger wind of (P&N) that exists, travelling at a speed lower than (186K MPS). This could be the answer to the ‘missing mass problem’ that confounds physicists today. Because these (P&N) are travelling at below the speed of light they become un-detectable, yet they would contribute greatly to the total mass of the universe and add to the phenomenon of gravity. This hidden mass seems to congregate towards the center of galaxies.

Neutrinos have different energy states which would be expressed with longitudinal axis spin. (N) also have flavors depending on the angle of attack in relation to the direction that they are travelling. Physicists already know that (P) will exert a pressure on a surface when they strike it. This is a classical case of mass and velocity teaming up to imparting force. There is not much of a stretch to assume that both (P&N), being the same objects with only different longitudinal and latitudinal axis spin-energy states, will exert pressure on all matter when striking it. This would include sub speed of light (P&N) also.

Photons and Neutrinos slide right through us with very little or no effect if the long axis of the sliver is pointed in the direction of travel or are spinning slowly. If however, the non-spinning (N) are coming at even a slight angle to the direction of travel or are spinning, (P); they will impart a slight pressure to the mass they are traversing. The many trillions per second of spinning and non spinning (P, N) and sub speed (P, N) striking and then passing completely through mass will exit the mass with a tendency to come out pointed more in the direction they are travelling than when they entered. They would act just like hypothetical ‘straws’ would, going through a sieve, and exiting parallel to each other.

This means that the pressure from the exiting (P) is less in the exact area directly between masses than the pressure is, coming from all other directions. The said ‘straws’ (P, N), directly exiting from the two adjacent sieves would be travelling parallel to each other and slip right on by and straight through the adjacent sieve. Consequently there would be less pressure between them. The greater the mass, the greater the sieve effect!

The masses are therefore pushed together——-GRAVITY!

(without gravitons)

A magnetic field resembles a gravitational field, in that it is an invisible directive force at a distance. Magnetism can either; attract or repel under certain differing conditions, as well as orient under other conditions. The general property that separates gravity and magnetism is that in magnetism, the attraction manifests only between very specific materials or conditions. Gravity on the other hand is purely an attractive influence between masses of any type. The gravitational effect is directly proportional, the more mass, the more attractive the influence. To date, gravity is not reversible. Both phenomena are invisible and to date have no apparent mechanism except through theory.

During my previous discussion, I describe gravity as the effect of mass acting like a general sieve for (P&N), reducing the average spin and orienting the longitudinal axis of the (P&N) to that of being more parallel to the direction of travel.

Magnetism on the other hand is manifested through the properties of specific conditions and materials. The most common material that can exhibit magnetic properties is iron. Iron has a cubic molecular arrangement. This lattice-like arrangement in bulk looks like a series of parallel channels, perfect for strongly directing and orienting the random blizzard-flux of (P&N).

Then, according to my views, the mechanism of magnetism manifests itself through the interaction of (P&N) upon a series of very specific atomic channels. These atomic channels naturally have intervals in the walls of the crystalline lattice, interacting on the (P&N) causing them to march in step and become strongly oriented. An electric current (electron flow) has a similar effect on the blizzard of (P&N), channeling the particles in a coherent way. The more focused and coherent the directed flow of (P&N) the stronger the magnetic influence. A superconducting material with an associated electron flow is an almost perfect barrier to a magnetic field.

I believe that magnetism and gravity then are separate versions of interactions with the same blizzard-flux of the cosmos. Each use different mechanisms to interact with the flux and therefore have dramatically different intensities combined with dramatically different interacting distances and properties.

The arrow like particles then slip by each other in varying orientations depending on the mechanism of the type of force. Since there is zero inherent friction to these fundamental particles (P) they slip right through us and everything, except with an effect that follows classic gravitational or magnetic rules. Both forces then are modulated through kinetic energy transfer. We, as humans, with our small limited array of highly specialized sensors, personally do not feel this random energy of space except through the gravitational force.

Therefore we see that magnetic fields channel the flux and make it coherent. These fields then cause the flux of (P&N) to interact with other magnetic fields in a forceful way by way of kinetic channeling. These fields can be quite powerful, especially at close range.

Because of zero friction and random source of the (P&N), energy cannot, to date, be extracted directly from the enormous cosmic flux of these particles. The potential energy that is inherent in each cubic centimeter of the universe is astounding. I wonder, could we eventually find some new way to grab and capture the random flux and re-direct this ferocious blizzard in a given direction?

In a previous section, I have discussed the conversion of mass (M) into energy (P). I will now discuss the creation of mass from (E) Energy or photons into mass. Energy =M-mass x C-speed of light—squared, E=mc².

For a stable universe (which is part of my theory), (M) has to be created at a more or less an ongoing pace. Therefore in my version of the universe, mass (M) must have a mechanism to be created from (E) or photons (P) at an ongoing rate.

Even a casual observer, when looking at a photo of a large spiral galaxy will conclude,  that it looks like matter is emanating outwards radially from the very center of the spiral structure. I believe that this is exactly what is happening through the following mechanism.

At or near the center of most large gatherings of stars whether it be elliptical, spiral or dwarf galaxies, globular or diffuse clusters, there are, more likely multiple neutron stars and or black holes (I am not sure if there is a lot of difference between the two except that black holes seem to be more massive). When extensive rotating systems collapse to a tiny center, the objects in that center, it is reasonable to assume, start to rotate rapidly, rapid enough to have the perimeter of some of the collapsed objects attain the speed of light. At this rotational speed the massive object will start to shed (P) at the speed of light in the shape of a very thin equatorial disk.

If two of these furiously spinning collapsed objects encounter each other, and if the axes of the two objects are somewhat in the same direction but not exactly parallel the corresponding disks of (P) will collide head on as shown in the next series of illustrations. This frequently occurs because in many large swirling accumulations of matter, the closer objects get to the center, the more aligned the axes of rotation will be. This will make the two disks of shed (P) travelling at the speed of light intersect, collide and then bend the particles of (P) against each other. Please take notice that the two spheres are spinning in the same direction (clockwise) BUT when the two get closer, the disks are intersecting and the particles collide head on.

The (P) will bend exactly at their respective centers, linking and making clusters that are defined as electrons which further cluster to make protons 1837 times heavier than electrons and neutrons one electron mass heavier than protons. This is a really strong indication that protons and neutrons are made of multiple electrons. When electrons break up they dissipate into pure energy (P). What stronger elementary evidence is needed to make this assumption?

The following illustrations show two individual photons in the process of colliding. The first is just before collision. The second shows the two crimping at the center from the force of inertia as the two interact. the next two show more bending. Notice that in the third and  fourth illustration, when bent in this manner, the surfaces of the tips line up essentially parallel to each other. This is feature important for the phenomenon of electron flow. Electron flow will be the next subject to be discussed.

When large quantities of these Vs link at the bottom of the apex of the bent (Ps) and stack up until the structure is saturated, an (E) is created. Multiple (Es) pile up and form Neutrons and Protons. With further interactions, atoms are fashioned. More will have to wait for another day.

Highly structured writing like this takes time so as soon as I can I will publish my thoughts on thorny concepts like; electron flow, dark energy, black holes, the expansion of the universe, supernovas and the red shift (in astronomy)  I have all of this worked out in my mind. Now I have to put it into writing.

To be continued———-